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In today’s era of digital advancements, computer viruses have emerged as a pervasive threat to computer systems worldwide. Malicious software can inflict substantial harm to a computer, ranging from data corruption to unauthorised access and data theft.

This blog delves into the realm of computer viruses, encompassing their historical evolution, diverse classifications, and the mechanisms by which they infiltrate computers. Irrespective of whether you are a business owner, an IT professional, or an everyday computer user, this blog imparts invaluable insights into the world of computer viruses and effective protection mechanisms.

What is a Computer Virus?

A computer virus is a form of software that infects a computer and propagates from one system to another, often without the user’s knowledge or consent. It constitutes a piece of code or software meticulously designed to self-replicate and disseminate across computer networks.

Computer viruses can cause various forms of damage to a computer, including file corruption, data deletion, and hardware malfunctions. Additionally, they possess the capability to pilfer personal information like passwords and credit card details, which can be exploited for fraudulent purposes.


Created by hackers and cybercriminals, malicious code is tailored to infect computers and pilfer sensitive data. Viruses are disseminated through diverse means, such as email attachments, infected software downloads, or even through network connections.

Once a laptop or desktop computer is infected with a virus, its detection and removal can prove arduous. Viruses conceal themselves within files or masquerade as legitimate programmes, complicating the identification process for users.

In sum, computer viruses pose a significant menace to computer security and can cause substantial damage to user data and personal information.

The First Computer Virus and Its Origin

The first computer virus, dubbed the “Creeper,” was conceived in the early 1970s by a computer programmer named Bob Thomas. The Creeper was an experimental self-replicating programme designed to infect mainframe computers operating on the TENEX operating system. It displayed a message on the computer’s screen, reading, “I’m the creeper, catch me if you can!”

Although the Creeper wasn’t intended to cause harm, it marked the inception of a new era of computer viruses and malware, evolving into a serious threat to computer security.

Classification of Computer Viruses

Boot Sector Virus: This virus infects a computer’s hard drive sector, rapidly propagating and causing substantial damage to the system.

Resident Virus: Resident viruses embed themselves in a computer’s memory, remaining active even when the infected programme is not running. Removing them can be challenging due to their ability to hide in memory and evade detection by antivirus software.

Computer Worm: Worms are self-replicating programmes that spread through networks without attaching to existing programmes. They swiftly infect multiple devices on the same network, resulting in considerable damage.

What is a Computer Virus

File Infectors: This type of virus infects executable files on a computer system, spreading through these files to infect other files.

Macro Virus: Macroviruses infect macro-enabled files, such as Word documents and Excel spreadsheets, often disseminated through email attachments and file sharing.

Polymorphic Virus: This virus can change its code to elude detection by antivirus software, rapidly spreading and causing substantial harm to computer systems.

Trojan Horse: Disguised as legitimate files, Trojan horses create backdoors in the system, enabling hackers to access and pilfer data.

Infection Routes of Computer Viruses

Email Attachments: Virus-laden email attachments pose a common threat to computer systems. Hackers employ infected attachments, which upon opening, trigger virus infections.

File Sharing: Virus infections can occur through sharing infected files on peer-to-peer networks, facilitating rapid virus transmission.

Malicious Websites: Malicious websites contain infected files or exploit vulnerabilities in the system’s software, leading to malware installation.

USB Drives: Infected USB drives can serve as vehicles for virus infection. Plugging in an infected USB drive can lead to the spread of the virus to the system and other files.

Methods of Computer Virus Protection

Multiple methods can safeguard computer systems against viruses, including:

Antivirus Software: Antivirus software is specifically designed to detect and eliminate viruses from computer systems. 

It scans files and email attachments for viruses and monitors the system for any suspicious activity, offering a wide array of options.

Firewall: Employing a firewall serves as a vital network security measure, blocking unauthorised access to the computer system. It efficiently monitors network traffic and prevents potential threats from infecting the system.

Software Updates: Regularly updating software, including the operating system and applications, is indispensable for robust computer security. These updates often encompass security patches that protect against known vulnerabilities exploited by viruses.

Strong Passwords: Utilising strong, unique passwords that incorporate uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols can deter unauthorised access to the computer system.

Detecting a Computer Virus

Detecting viruses on a computer can prove challenging, as viruses are designed to evade detection and conceal themselves in various system locations. Nevertheless, several techniques for virus detection can be employed to identify and eradicate viruses from the system:

Scanning Software: Antivirus software, or scanning software, remains one of the most common techniques for detecting computer viruses. These programmes monitor the system for malicious software and identify known viruses, assisting in the removal of suspicious files or programmes.

Heuristic Scanning: Heuristic scanning employs a set of rules or algorithms to identify viruses that have not yet been identified. This method is particularly useful in detecting emerging threats that conventional antivirus software may not recognise.

Behavioural Analysis: Behavioural analysis monitors programme and process behaviour on the computer to detect any anomalous activity, including viruses attempting to evade detection.

Signature-based Scanning: Signature-based scanning involves identifying specific patterns or signatures of known viruses, helping to detect identified viruses and adding them to a database of known threats.

Sandbox Analysis: Sandbox analysis entails running suspicious files or programs within a virtual environment to assess their behaviour, aiding in the detection of viruses designed to elude traditional scanning methods.

Network Monitoring: Network monitoring scrutinises network traffic for suspicious activity, signifying the presence of viruses or malware attempting to spread across the network.

Manual Inspection: While more time-consuming and less effective than automated scanning, manual inspection entails scrutinising files and programmes on the system for any suspicious behaviour or activity, proving useful in detecting new and emerging threats.

Eliminating Computer Viruses with PITS

PITS Global Data Recovery Services specialises in assisting clients with data recovery from virus-infected computers. Our adept recovery technicians possess profound expertise in combating various types of viruses, adeptly retrieving valuable data for our clients.

Viruses are notorious for inducing multifaceted issues on a computer, such as file corruption and data loss. At PITS, we comprehend the gravity of data loss and its ramifications for businesses and individuals alike. Consequently, we offer an extensive array of services aimed at recovering lost data and securing it against future threats.

Viruses are notorious for inducing multifaceted issues on a computer, such as file corruption and data loss. At PITS, we comprehend the gravity of data loss and its ramifications for businesses and individuals alike. 

Consequently, we offer an extensive array of services aimed at recovering lost data and securing it against future threats.

Our virus recovery services are meticulously designed to cleanse our clients’ computers of malware contributing to data loss. Leveraging state-of-the-art tools and methodologies, we detect and remove viruses, ensuring that the computer systems remain virus-free.

We comprehend that data loss can be a distressing experience, and our support team remains accessible 24/7 to address queries and provide assistance regarding our data recovery services. At PITS, we prioritise the significance of our client’s data and strive to expedite recovery processes, ensuring data security.

Reach out to us today to learn more about our recovery services for virus-affected devices. Our team is dedicated to providing comprehensive support in any capacity possible.

Frequently Asked Questions

A computer virus is a form of malicious software (malware) engineered to replicate and spread from one computer to another. It attaches itself to legitimate programmes, files, or documents, causing damage to the system, corrupting or deleting data, or disrupting normal computer functioning.

Email Attachments: Opening infected email attachments can introduce a virus to the computer.

Downloading from Untrusted Sources: Downloading files or software from unverified or malicious websites can lead to virus infections.

Removable Media: Inserting infected USB drives or other external storage devices can transfer viruses to a computer.

Software Vulnerabilities: Exploiting security vulnerabilities in software programmes can allow viruses to infiltrate a computer.

Drive-by Downloads: Visiting compromised websites or clicking on malicious links can result in automatic virus downloads.

File Infectors: These viruses attach themselves to executable files, spreadsheets, or documents.

Boot Sector Viruses: These infect the boot sector of a computer’s hard drive or other storage devices.

MacroViruses: These infect applications that use macros, such as Microsoft Office documents.

Polymorphic Viruses: These viruses can change their code to avoid detection.

Worms: Worms are self-replicating viruses that spread through networks without needing a host file.

Trojan Horses: Trojan horses disguise themselves as legitimate programmes but have malicious intent.

Ransomware: Ransomware encrypts a user’s files and demands a ransom for their release.

Spyware: Spyware secretly collects user information and sends it to malicious parties.

  • Disconnect from the internet to prevent the virus from spreading or communicating with its source.
  • Run a full system scan with your antivirus software to detect and remove the virus.
  • If the antivirus software cannot remove the virus, consider using specialised removal tools or seeking professional help.
  • Restore your computer from a clean backup, if available, to ensure the removal of the virus.
  • Update your passwords for online accounts to prevent unauthorised access.
  • Learn from the experience and reinforce your computer’s security measures to prevent future infections.

With proper antivirus software and security measures, viruses can be effectively detected, removed, and prevented. However, new viruses and malware are constantly being developed, so it is crucial to stay vigilant and maintain updated security practices.

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